360足彩

学术天地
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360足彩  GUANGDONGSHENGCHUMUSHOUYIXUEHUISHIYOUGUANGDONGSHENGMINZHENGTINGPIZHUNCHENGLIDEJUYOUFARENZIGEDEQUANSHENGXINGSHEHUITUANTI,SHIGUANGDONGSHENGKEXUEJISHUXIEHUIDEZUCHENGBUFEN,SHIDANGHEZHENGFULIANXICHUMUSHOUYIKEJIGONGZUOZHEDEQIAOLIANGHENIUDAI,SHIFAZHANWOSHENGCHUMUSHOUYISHIYEDEZHONGYAOSHEHUILILIANG。XIANRENLISHIZHANGSHILIAOMINGTONGZHI。

 
粤东黑猪胴体和肉质分析

        摘要:粤东黑猪是广东省著名地方品种,主要分布在广东省梅州和潮汕地区。为了了解粤东黑猪胴体、肉品质等遗传性状,本研究挑选相同条件下健康的5月龄粤东黑猪(57.56±10.45kg)8头,按相关标准开展体尺指标、屠宰性能和肉质性状的测定。结果显示,在体尺指标中粤东黑猪体高为53.63±5.68cm,体长为89.00±8.09cm,胸围为90.00±5.37cm,腹围为103.38±6.07cm,管围为14.88±1.25cm;在屠宰性能中粤东黑猪屠宰率为71.22±2.33%,背膘厚为3.25±0.90cm,皮率为11.11±2.17%,骨率为9.40±2.19%,肥肉率为30.94±5.11%,瘦肉率为48.56±3.71%,在肉质性状中粤东黑猪pH45min和pH24h为6.37±0.16和5.56±0.12,肉色测量值L,a,b分别为45.70±1.95,19.01±1.13,2.82±0.46,滴水损失为2.18±0.26,大理石纹为2.83±0.72。试验结果显示,粤东黑猪属中型地方品种猪,具有良好的胴体性能和肌肉品质,产肉较高, 肉质鲜红细嫩。

        SUIZHEWOGUOJUMINSHENGHUOSHUIPINGDEBUDUANTIGAO,RENMENDEXIAOFEIGUANNIANBUDUANSHENGJI,ZHUROUXIAOFEISHICHANGYEZAIFASHENGZHEZHONGYAOBIANGE,CONGZHIQIANDE“YOUROUCHI、SHOUROUDUO”YIZHUJIANXIANGYOUZHIZHUROU、PINPAIZHUROUDENGFANGXIANGZHUANBIAN。JINNIANLAI,PINPAIHUACHENGDUGAODEHEIZHUROUJIAGEYIZHIWEICHIGAOWEI,JUNJIASHIBAIZHUROUDE2-3 BEI,QIESHOU“ZHUZHOUQI”YINGXIANGJIXIAO。YINCI,KAIFALIYONGDIFANGZHONGZHUZIYUAN,SHENGCHANYOUZHIZHUROU,JINERHUOQUSHICHANGFENEYUPINPAIYIJIA,CHENGWEICHUMUQIYEZHENGXIANGTOURUDIFANGZHUZHONGYANFADEZHUYAOYUANYIN。

粤东黑猪作为广东省现有四大地方猪种之一,具有肉嫩鲜美、瘦肉较多的特点,但乳头数较少,公、母猪的体型较小,生长速度慢,饲料利用率不高。经调查粤东黑猪已处于濒危状态,且对粤东黑猪相关性状的分析比较少,本研究对粤东黑猪(蕉岭系)的屠宰性能及肉质性状进行测定分析,拟更新粤东黑猪相关性状的数据,为今后的保种及利用提供依据。

1 材料与方法

1.1 CAILIAO

       BENSHIYANSUIJITIAOXUANJIANKANG,TIZHONGXIANGJINDE5YUELINGYUEDONGHEIZHU 8 TOU,QIZHONGMUZHU3TOU,QUSHIGONGZHU5TOU,JUNLAIZIJIYUEDONGHEIZHUBAOZHONGCHANG(C4401040)—JIAOLINGXIANTAINONGHEIZHUFAZHANYOUXIANGONGSI。CAIYONGXIANZHIXINGCAISHI,ZIYOUYINSHUI,ANZHAOCHANGGUIMIANYICHENGXUJIEZHONGMIANYI,DANLIEBANKAIFANGSHIZHUSHE,FEIYUZHUXIAOQUNFENLANSIYANG。RILIANGCUDANBAIZHIHANLIANG15%,XIAOHUANENGSHUIPING12.5 MJ/kg。

1.2 JIANCEZHIBIAOYUFANGFA

1.2.1 TICHIXINGZHUANG TUZAIHUOZHONG、TIGAO、TIZHANG、XIONGWEI、FUWEI、GUANWEI。

1.2.2 TUZAIXINGNENG SHIYANZHUJUNZAIZAIQIANJINSHI24 h,TUZAICAOZUOGUICHENGCANZHAO《SHOUROUXINGZHUDONGTIXINGZHUANGCEDINGJISHUGUIFAN》(NY/T825-2004),ZHUYAOCEDINGDONGTIZHONG、TUZAILV、PIHOU、BEIBIAOHOU、PILV、GULV、FEIROULV、SHOUROULVDENGZHIBIAO。

1.2.3 ROUZHIXINGZHUANG GENJU《ZHUJIROUPINZHICEDINGJISHUGUIFAN》(NY/T 821-2004)SUOSHUFANGFACEDINGROUPINZHI,CEDINGZHIBIAOBAOKUOpHZHI、ROUSE、DISHUISUNSHI、DALISHIWENDENG。pHZHICEDINGCAIYONGBIANXIESHISUANDUJI(HI8424XING,BEIJINGHannaYIQIKEXUEJISHUYOUXIANGONGSI,BEIJING)。ROUSECEDINGCAIYONGSECHAJI(Konica Minolta CR410 XING,Minolta GONGSI,RIBEN),CEDINGROUYANGDE L(LIANGDU)、a(HONGDU)、b(HUANGDU)ZHI。DALISHIWENPINGFENCAIYONG5FENZHI。

1.3 SHUJUFENXI

      BENYANJIUJICHUSHUJUJINGGUOExcelRUANJIANCHULIHOU,YINGYONGspss22.0JINXINGDUNCANSHIFADUOZHONGBIJIAO。BENSHIYANZHONGSUOYOUSHUJUBIAOSHIFANGSHIJUNWEI:PINGJUNZHI±BIAOZHUNCHA(mean±sd),TONGJIXIANZHUXINGSHUIPINGWEIP <0.05。

2 结果与分析

2.1 TICHIZHIBIAO

      YUEDONGHEIZHUDAXIAOSHIZHONG,TIZHIJIESHI,JIEGOUYUNCHENG,TICHIZHIBIAOJIEGUOJIANBIAO1,QUSHIGONGZHUYUMUZHUZAITIZHONGXIANGJINDEQINGKUANGXIA,TIGAO、TIZHANG、XIONGWEI、FUWEIHEGUANWEIZHIBIAOCHAYIJUNBUXIANZHU。

表1 粤东黑猪体尺指标


2.2 TUZAIXINGNENG

      YUEDONGHEIZHUTUZAIXINGNENGCEDINGJIEGUOJIANBIAO2,MUZHUDONGTIBIGONGZHUZHONG,DANBEIBIAOBIGONGZHUBO,SHOUROULVBIGONGZHUGAO,DANCHAYIBUXIANZHU。QUSHIGONGZHUYUMUZHUZAITIZHONGXIANGJINQINGKUANGXIA,TUZAIXINGNENGZHIBIAOCHAYIBUXIANZHU,QUSHIGONGZHUYUMUZHUZAICHANROUXINGNENGFANGMIANWUMINGXIANQUBIE。

表2 粤东黑猪屠宰性能

2.3 ROUZHIXINGZHUANG

      YUEDONGHEIZHUROUZHIXINGZHUANGCEDINGJIEGUOJIANBIAO3,MUZHUDALISHIWENPINGFENBIGONGZHUGAO,DANCHAYIBUXIANZHU。QUSHIGONGZHUYUMUZHUZAIpH、ROUSE、DISHUISUNSHI、DALISHIWENDENGROUZHIXINGZHUANGZHIBIAOZHONGCHAYIBUXIANZHU。

表3 粤东黑猪肉质性状

3 讨论

3.1 TICHIZHIBIAO

       ZHUDETICHIXINGZHUANGZHIBIAOSHIZHUZUIZHIGUANDESHENGCHANZHIBIAO,NENGGOUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGWUZHONGDESHENGZHANGFAYUQINGKUANG, BINGSHOUYICHUAN、YINGYANG、HUANJINGDENGDUOZHONGYINSUDEYINGXIANG。BENSHIYANZHONGYUEDONGHEIZHUTUQIANPINGJUNHUOZHONG57.56kgSHI,TIGAO53.63cm,TIZHANG89.00cm,XIONGWEI90.00cm,FUWEI103.38cm,GUANWEI14.88cm,BIYINJINPINZHONGDABAIZHU、ZHANGBAIZHU、DULUOKEZHUXIAO。ZAITIZHONGXIANGJINDEQINGKUANGXIA,YUZHONGMEISHANGONGZHUTICHIZHIBIAOXIANGJIN,TIZHANGBISHAWUTOUZHU,LIJIANGZHUDENGDIFANGZHUZHONGXIAO,QITAZHIBIAOYUSHAWUTOUZHU,LIJIANGZHUXIANGJIN。YUEDONGHEIZHUJIEYUDAXINGHEXIAOXINGZHUZHIJIANQIETIXINGSHIZHONG,JIBENFUHEPINZHONGDETIXINGTEDIAN。YUYOUZHISHOUROUXINGZHUJIPEIYUZHUXIANGBI,RENGXUTONGGUOXUANYUJINYIBUGAISHAN。

3.2 TUZAIXINGNENG

       DONGTIXINGZHUANGSHIFANYINGCHUQINCHANROUNENGLIDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。BENSHIYANZHONGYUEDONGHEIZHUQUSHIGONGZHUBEIBIAOHOUGAOYUMUZHU,SHOUROULVDIYUMUZHU,FEIROULVQUSHIGONGZHUGAOYUMUZHU,ZHEIYUXIEBAOCAI、DINGYUEYUNDENGYANJIUXINGBIEDUIGUANZHONGHEIZHU,ANQINGLIUBAIZHUDEJIEGUOQUSHIXIANGYIZHI,XINGBIEDUIYUEDONGHEIZHUPILVHEGULVJIBENMEIYOUYINGXIANG。ZONGHEKAOLV,YUEDONGHEIZHUDEDONGTIXINGNENGMUZHUYOUYUQUSHIGONGZHU,DANCHAYIBUXIANZHU。ZAISIYANGGUOCHENGZHONGYINGANXINGBIEFENQUNSIYANG,BINGQIEDUIQUSHIGONGZHUJINXINGXIANSIHESHISHITUZAI。

       YUGUANGDONGDIFANGZHUZHONGGUANGDONGXIAOERHUAZHUXIANGBI,YUEDONGHEIZHUBEIBIAOHOU、TUZAILV、PILV、GULV、FEIROULVJIAODI,SHOUROULVJIAOGAO。YUQUESHANHEIZHU、SHAWUTOUZHUXIANGBISHOUROULVGENGGAO。YUDUZHANGDAJISHANGPINZHUXIANGBI,YUEDONGHEIZHUBEIBIAOHOUHEPILVDA,TUZAILV、GULV、SHOUROULVJUNJIAOXIAO。TONGGUOYISHANGSHUJUDUIBIKEZHI,YUEDONGHEIZHUJUYOUCHUANTONGDIFANGZHUZHONGBEIBIAOHOUDUJIAOGAODETEDIAN。PILV、GULV、SHOUROULVDENGZHIBIAOJUNSHIHENGLIANGZHUZHONGCHANROUXINGNENGDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO,SHUOMINGYUEDONGHEIZHUZAICHANROUXINGNENGFANGMIANYUXIFANGYOUZHIZHUZHONGHEPEIYUZHUZHONGXIANGBIHAICUNZAIYIDINGDECHAJU,DANYOUYUGUANGDONGJIGUONEIYIXIEDIFANGZHUZHONG,ZHEIBIAOMINGYUEDONGHEIZHUPEIYUQIANLIJUDA。

3.3 ROUZHIXINGZHUANG

       猪屠宰后肌肉的pH、肉色、滴水损失、大理石纹等是评价猪肌肉品质的重要指标。在本试验中性别对于粤东黑猪肉质性状影响不大。屠宰后45min和24h的猪肉pH是区分肉质正常与否的重要指标。国内外许多学者认为屠宰45 min后pH<6为PSE肉,正常值应介于6.1~6.4之间,屠宰后24 h pH>6为DFD肉。粤东黑猪pH45min和pH24h分别为6.37和5.56,说明宰后无PES肉和DFD肉。肉色作为一项公认的重要食用品质外观指标,影响消费者的购买欲,其深浅取决于肌肉色素含量。粤东黑猪亮度L为45.70,与杜长大猪及商品猪相近,红度a为19.01,显著高于引进品种猪及商品猪,黄度b为2.82,低于外种猪,符合地方猪种肉色鲜红的特征。滴水损失也是评定肉品质的一项重要指标,与系水力呈负相关,是影响肉色、风味和嫩度的重要因素。粤东黑猪滴水损失达2.18,系水力逊色于外来猪种及藏猪、雅南猪、大河猪等地方猪种,优于民猪。大理石纹的含量和分布与多汁性、嫩度有直接关系,粤东黑猪大理石纹优于大白猪、长白猪,但比藏猪、民猪、荣昌猪等评分低。总体来说,粤东黑猪的肉质优于引进品种,但比一些地方品种差,肉质性状可作为今后粤东黑猪选育的重点。

4 结论

      BENCITUZAIXINGNENGHEROUPINZHIFENXICEDINGJIEGUOBIAOMING,ZAIDIFANGZHUZHONGZHONGYUEDONGHEIZHUTIXINGZHONGDENG,CHANROUXINGNENGSHUYUZHONGSHANGSHUIPING,DANROUZHIXINGZHUANGSHAOWEIXUNSE,ZAIYIHOUDEYUEDONGHEIZHUZHONGZHIZIYUANKAIFAYULIYONGZHONGKEJIANGROUZHIZHIBIAOJIARUDAOCHANGGUIDEZHONGZHUXUANYUGONGZUOZHONG, TONGGUOCHIXUXUANYUDADAOGAISHANZHUROUPINZHIDEMUDE。

(DIYIZUOZHE:LIBAOHONG,GONGZUODANWEI:GUANGDONGSHENGNONGYEKEXUEYUANDONGWUKEXUEYANJIUSUO,LAIYUAN:《GUANGDONGCHUMUSHOUYIKEJI》2019NIANDI6QI)